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Cover image for the 2023 P5 Report. An illustration of a blue and purple light coming out of a black hole. Two light beams are jutting out from the center toward the edges of the frame. The beam on the left is filled with moving blue orbs and the beam on the right is filled with two larger orbs containing small galaxy depictions. Telescopes at the South Pole against starry skies. NGC 520, one of the largest and brightest galaxies in the Siena Galaxy Atlas. This artist’s rendering shows LuSEE-Night atop the Blue Ghost spacecraft scheduled to deliver the experiment to the far side of the moon. A 3D map of space, with streams of light pointing in different directions from a central focal point. Researchers took detailed images in 20 different directions on the sky, creating a 3D map of 700,000 objects and covering roughly 1% of the total volume DESI will study. The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) atop Kitt Peak. Still frame from a black and white video that shows Georges Lemaître, a man with short hair and glasses, at the end of the interview. The roof of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument opens up to reveal a starry night sky. Members of science team lined-up in a water tank after the outer detector installation. Smiling person in front of a chalk board Scientific data plot. The earth is in the lower left, looking out in the directions of the constellations Virgo, Serpens and Hercules to distances beyond 5 billion light years. As this video progresses, the vantage point sweeps through 20 degrees towards the constellations Bootes and Corona Borealis. Each colored point represents a galaxy, which in turn is composed of 100 billion to 1 trillion stars. Gravity has clustered the galaxies into structures called the “cosmic web”, with dense clusters, filaments and voids.