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Cover image for the 2023 P5 Report. An illustration of a blue and purple light coming out of a black hole. Two light beams are jutting out from the center toward the edges of the frame. The beam on the left is filled with moving blue orbs and the beam on the right is filled with two larger orbs containing small galaxy depictions. Ashok Gadgil, Physicist Senior Faculty Scientist/Engineer, Energy Technologies Area (ETA), photographed with the UV Waterworks device, a low-cost and efficient water purifier that utilizes ultra-violet light to render viruses and bacteria harmless, at his lab on the UC Berkeley campus, Berkeley, California, 03/27/2023. A flyover image of a Salton Sea lithium plant. Closeup swamp wetland: shadows from plants on water surface covered with duckweed. Aerial photograph of the FLEXLAB complex Split shot, over under water surface. Defocused fish under the waterline with an island on the surface during a dramatic sunrise. Structures of 12 compounds in the Materials Project database. A cartoon-style graphic of a woman in green holding a plastic cup looking at a range of different gray recycling bins with piles of multicolored waste piled around them. Collage image of a scientist and sorghum plants overlaid on a teal background. An illustration showing three human figures, one in snow, one in a marsh, and one by a wooded stream. All are collected data in the field. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the new 2D nanosheet as a barrier coating that self-assembles on a variety of substrates: a Teflon beaker and membrane, polyester film, thick and thin silicon films, and glass. KIA NIRO electric car is charging on street parking lot of Lindholmen, Gothenburg